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Index Last Updated - April 2021

    Designing With JFETs - Not Always Easy
Pickup Output Voltages Expected From Electric Guitars And Basses.
Using Phase Shift Networks To Achieve Time Delay For Time Alignment.
Solid State Relays, Types & Usage.  MOSFET, IGBT, TRIAC & SCR types.
Using Bleeders To Discharge PSU Capacitors When Power Is Removed
Contact Arc Mitigation & Prevention
Hybrid Relays - Improved Reliability & Performance
Electric Motors - Types, Uses And Powering
Passive Crossover Design Guides


Quick LinksOverview of Contents ...
Feature ArticlesLamps & Energy Index, Biamping, Counterfeit Parts, PA Systems, Cinema Sound.
AmplificationCharacteristics of Amplifiers, Operating Classes, Clipping, Distortion & Feedback, Dissipation, Protection, Valves.
CablesCoaxial Cables, Impedance, Cable Myths.
Test & MeasurementMeters, Multipliers, Shunts, Weighting Filters, ABX Tests, Squarewave Testing, High Impedance Circuits.
Components & Uses555 Timer, Buffers, Capacitors, Comparators, Fuses, Heatsinks, Relays, Transistors, FETs, Transformers & DC, Variac
Non-AudioInformation about things that have no direct connection to audio.  Relays, Motors, Morse code and Servos are covered, with more to come as time permits.
Microphones etc.Microphones, Mic Calibration, Audio Transformers, Reverb Tanks, Guitar Measurements.
General InformationAM Radio, Compression, Equalisation, CD Vs SACD, Importing Gear, Morse Code, Sound, Patents, Phono Cartridges.
Electrical SafetyMaking sure that your working conditions and projects are safe is priority #1.  (New Sub-section)
Beginners' LuckBasics - Electronics, Amplifiers, Bridging, Opamps, Frequency, Amplitude, dB, Pots, Tools, Voltage Dividers.
Design GuidelinesActive Filters, HEXFETs, Amplifiers, Current Sources, Heatsinks, MOSFET Relays, Noise, PSU Design, Sinewaves, Variable Impedance, VCAs, Instrumentation Amps.
Power Supply DesignBucking Transformers, Inrush Current, Inverters, Mains Quality, Small PSUs, Transformers, Voltage & Current Regulators, Isolation Transformers, Chargers, Mains Wiring, etc.
Active Crossovers & FiltersActive Vs Passive, Baffle Step, Subtractive Filters, Digital Signal Processing, NTM Crossover, Phase Correction.
Passive Crossover DesignData to help you to provide driver impedance correction, and passive crossover design guides.
Loudspeaker DesignCompliance Scaling, Doppler Distortion, Impedance, Failure Modes, Time Alignment, Subwoofers.
Main IndexReturn to the main ESP Index.
This site can't exist without purchases from readers, but if you don't need to buy anything please consider a donation to ensure the site's survival.

Feature Articles Updated 
RepairAmplifier Troubleshooting and Repair Guide  If it's broken, you may be able to fix it. This article is designed for those new to repairsApr 2003
Repair 2Amp Troubleshooting and Repair Guide - Part 2  Preamps, crossovers and other opamp circuits can cause grief too Jan 2007
Lamps + EnergyLamps & Energy - All material under this heading now has a new home with a separate index May 2015
BiampBenefits of Bi-Amplification - Not quite magic, but close (Part I) May 2005
Biamp 2Benefits of Bi-Amplification - Crossovers, tri-amping, etc. (Part II) May 2005
Cinema SoundCinema Sound ... Why Isn't It Excellent? - The cinema X-Curve (ISO Bulletin 2969) is used everywhere, but is it right? Mar 2012
FakeCounterfeit (Fake!) Semiconductors - Don't you be caught with fake, below spec transistors when you build a project! Feb 2011
SchoolEducation - Customised projects for schools, technical colleges and universities Apr 2003
PA SystemsPublic Address Systems for Music Applications - Something of an exposé on the pitfalls of PA systems   Oct 2009
ManufactureState of Manufacturing - This article should be a mandatory read for all businessmen and politicians, a real wake-up call !  (Nothing has really changed since this was first written.) May 2010
SustainabilityThe Right To Repair, Projects, DIY & Sustainability - A look at many of the issues that face owners of modern equipment that can't be repaired! April 2020

Amp SoundAmplifier Sound - What causes the perceived differences between amps?  Is it real or imaginary? Apr 2000
Amp ClassesAmplifier Classes - What is the difference between Class-A, Class-B and all the others? The characteristics of each are discussed Nov 2017
Amp ClassesAmplifier Power - How Much Do You Need?  Probably a lot less than you think. Sep 2019
Class AClass-A - a discussion of the benefits of Class-A amplifiers Apr 2005
Class GClass-G - One of the lesser known amp classes. An explanation of how they work Jan 2009
DC ServoDC Servos - Tips, Traps & Applications. Jun 2019
PWMClass-D (PWM) Amplifiers - Theory and design concepts behind these 'new' amplifiers Jun 2005
ClippingClipping Behaviour - One of the lesser known effects of amplifier clipping, and the damage it can do. Oct 2004
70/100V Line AmpsCommercial Sound - 70V & 100V 'constant voltage' line public address systems. Learn the pitfalls before you get caught. Jun 2012
Current Drive AmpsCurrent Drive - Current Drive Power Amplifiers & Effects on Loudspeaker Drivers. Apr 2019
FeedbackDistortion & Negative Feedback - A detailed look at the way negative feedback reduces distortion Oct 2006
Guitar AmpsGuitar Amplifiers - Often there is little point repairing, and a replacement power amp should be considered. Here is why. Feb 2011
Guitar SpeakersGuitar Speakers - A detailed examination of the things that go towards 'the sound' of guitar speakers. Sep 2018
Boosted IC AmpsIC Power Amplifiers - Getting more power by adding booster transistors. Jan 2019
IntermodulationIntermodulation Distortion - Interesting finding, symmetrical Vs. asymmetrical. Where did the difference frequency go? Sep 2012
IntermodulationIntermodulation Distortion - How it's measured, and what it does to the sound. A description of the common IMD tests and how it's created.Feb 2019
GuitarMusical Instrument Amplifiers - Guitar, Bass and Keyboard  Feb 2001
ProtectionShort Circuit Protection - Testing amplifiers to the limits ‡ Aug 2000
Soft ClipSoft Clipping - Is adding a soft-clip circuit worth the effort? Apr 2006
SpeedThe Need For Speed - Very high speed opamps from Texas Instruments Aug 2001
PhasePhase Angle Vs. Transistor Dissipation - A simplified approach to understanding Safe Operating Area Mar 2005
SIMSound Impairment Monitor - Is This The Answer? - A new method to monitor distortion in real time Sep 2000
SOATransistor Safe Operating Area - What is SOA, and how does it affect amplifier designs Aug 2003
ValveValves & Amplifiers - A new section that includes information about valves, myths, etc. Jan 2010

Coax CableCoaxial Cables - An introduction to coaxial (coax) cables, and where (and why) they are used Jul 2016
Cable ZCable Impedance - Characteristic impedance, high capacitance designs and amp stability Oct 2003
CableThe Truth About Cables, Interconnects and Audio in General - A 'must read' article Sep 2002
White PaperMore Truth About Cables - A white paper discussing speaker cables and interconnects *‡ Jul 2001

Test & MeasurementUpdated
A-BA-B Switch Box for Amplifier Comparisons - Something to offend everyone, or a great tool? ‡ Aug 2000
ABXABX Comparator - A true ABX system that does not need a PC or microcontroller ‡ Aug 2002
A-weightingA-Weighting And Sound Measurements ... How the indiscriminate use of A-weighting causes grief  Sep 2012
High ImpedanceHigh Impedance Circuits - a collection of circuits for piezo sensors, test & measurement applications Mar 2020
MetersMeters, Multipliers & Shunts - How to use analogue and digital panel meters May 2006
OscilloscopesOscilloscopes ... How They Work And Their Usage Mar 2017
Squarewave TestingSquarewave Testing - How to interpret the changes made to a squarewave by amplifiers, tone controls and filters Feb 2015

Components & UsesUpdated 
555 TimerThe 555 Timer - How to use it, and some example circuits May 2015
BJTBJT Parameters - An examination of fundamental bipolar transistor parameters and function.  (Now includes switching.) Feb 2020
PartsBuying Parts - A general look at the parts you need for electronics hobby work. Oct 2007
CapsCapacitors - What are the influences that determine the so-called 'sound' of capacitors. Covers dielectrics, dissipation factor, etc. Oct 2005
CurrentComparators - The unsung heroes of electronics. An examination of their performance and usage in circuitry. Aug 2016
Compound vs. DarlingtonCompound vs. Darlington - An explanation of the differences between Compound (Sziklai) and Darlington pairs. Jan 2011
DC and TransformersDC Offset and Transformers - Many people have found that toroidal transformers growl at times. This explains why, & how to fix it.Mar 2008
FETs and MOSFETSFETs (& MOSFETs) - Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages Sep 2017
FusingFusing - Circuit protection, how to select the right circuit protection device to prevent serious damage ‡ Sep 2009
EqualisationFollow The Leader - Voltage Followers & Buffers, the techniques and different topologies are discussed, with the advantages and disadvantages of each explainedJul 2016
HeatsinkHeatsink - Build Your Own? - Yes, it can be done. If you have the tools, you can make a heatsink as big as you'll ever want. Feb 2006
VariacTransformers ... The Variac - One of the most useful but misunderstood pieces of workshop equipment. Feb 2009

Non-Audio InformationUpdated
Arc PreventionContact Arc Mitigation & Prevention.  How to extend the contact life of relays and contactors Sep 2020
Hybrid RelaysHybrid Relays - Hybrid Relays using MOSFETs, TRIACs and SCRs.  Improved performance & reliability for difficult loads Aug 2020
Morse CodeMorse Code - The birth of electronic messaging, and there's more to it than you might think. Nov 2016
MotorsElectric Motors - Types, Uses And Powering.  All common motor types are covered, but this is intended as a 'starter guide' Jul 2020
RelaysRelays (Part 1) - What they are, what they do, and how to get the best results from them Dec 2014
RelaysRelays (Part 2) - Getting the best results from relay contacts & minimising arcing Jan 2015
ServosServos, remote control, electronic speed controls and tachometers.  Includes sample schematics and photos of typical equipment. Jan 2018
ServosSolid State Relays, Types & Usage.  MOSFET, IGBT, TRIAC & SCR types, with schematics and explanations of typical designs. Nov 2020

Microphones & Audio TransformersUpdated 
feedbackAcoustic Feedback In PA Systems, With Special Reference To Frequency Shifting Feb 2017
MicsElectret Microphones - Powering & Uses Feb 2017
GuitarGuitar Voltages - How much level should you expect from electric guitar pickups?  Mar 2021
MicsMicrophones - An introduction to the different types, polar response and behaviour of microphones Jan 2006
Mics2Microphones Part 2 - Measurement microphones, sound level meters and calibrators Nov 2016
Mics2Microphone Splitters - How to send the output from a single mic to multiple destinations Dec 2016
70/100V LinesPA Transformers - 70V & 100V 'constant voltage' line public address systems. Learn the pitfalls before you get caught. These apply whenever any amp is connected to a transformer !Jun 2012
ReverbReverberation - The care and feeding of spring reverb tanks Sep 2009
Line Level XfmrsTransformers for 'Line Level' Audio - Extremely versatile and with many features unobtainable with active circuits, but there are traps!Sep 2014

General InformationUpdated 
AMAM Radio - Approaches to high fidelity AM broadcast band reception ‡ Feb 2006
AMAmplitude Modulation - How to generate AM waveforms in a simulator to test detector performance. Aug 2016
Analogue vs DigitalAnalogue vs Digital - Does 'Digital' Really Exist? The question isn't as silly as it sounds at first! Apr 2017
CD etcCD, SACD and DVD-A - A Comparison of the formats in a discussion between Niklas Ladberg and Ing. Ohman (very interesting) ‡ Aug 2002
CompressionCompression In Audio - Ever wondered why some music sounds flat and lifeless, even though it's loud? Dec 2001
EarthingEarthing Your Hi-Fi - Tricks and Techniques - How to eliminate hum without affecting safety Dec 1999
ElectrocutionElectrocution - How to avoid being electrocuted, what to do if the worst happens Apr 2007
EqualisationEqualisation - Equalisers, The Various Types And How They Work. From 'Tone Controls' to Parametric EQ  Feb 2021
50-60HzImporting Equipment From Overseas ... Effects of Voltage & Frequency on Electronic Equipment (50/60Hz can make a big difference !) Feb 2010
IllusionIs Sound an Illusion - An interesting discussion about our perception of sound ‡ Sep 2009
ImpedanceImpedance - What does it really mean?  A general discussion on impedance, damping, etc. Jan 2005
MutingMuting Circuits - Looking at the various options available for muting an audio signal Oct 2015
MythsMyths in Audio - A Look at some of the more entrenched myths, as well as some that are just too silly for words. Jul 2012
PatentsPatents - A look at the patent system, and how (or if) it affects the DIY fraternity.   ‡ May 2010
Phono CartridgePhono Cartridge Loading - A detailed examination of the phono cartridge, and how loading affects response Jan 2012
TweetersWhy Do Tweeters Blow? - The real reason that tweeters (and other drivers) are destroyed by distortion Jun 2012
What Is-1What is Hi-Fi - A contributed article on some of the subtle aspects of Hi-Fi ‡ May 2001
What Is-2What is Hi-Fi (Part II) - Continuation of 'What is Hi-Fi' explaining the idea of accuracy (amongst other things) Mar 2004
Yellow GlueYellow Glue - The Enemy Of Electronics - This is a problem mainly seen by service technicians, but it may still affect products you buy   Nov 2019

Electrical Safety - Make sure that you and your loved ones are protected from harm.Updated
Isolation TransformersIsolation Transformers - is an isolating transformer on the test bench a good safety measure or a death trap? Dec 2016
Mains SafetyMains Safety - Wiring Standards, Insulation, Class I, Class II and Important Information. Wiring of mains is poorly understood by many, and applicable standards vary worldwide.Mar 2019
SupplyPower Supply Wiring - There are a lot of considerations for the wiring of a PSU - read about it here Jun 2003

Beginners' Luck - The beginners' Guide to ...Updated
LenardElectronics Basics - The Lenard Audio site has an education section that is recommended for those just starting out
Beginner 1Electronics - Part 1   If you are a beginner, read these two articles first.   Covers passive components - resistors, capacitors and inductors Mar 2001
Beginner 2Electronics - Part 2  The resistor 'E' series (e.g. E12, E24, etc), Zener Diodes Mar 2004
BasicsAmplifier Basics - (Introduction) How Amps Work - How amplifiers do what they do, six part series Apr 2005
EfficiencyAmplifier Efficiency - Power Loss, DC voltages and current explained  Jan 2000
BridgingBridging - How the 'Trimode' bridging system works in car power amplifiers Oct 2002
EtiquetteBulletin Boards - A guide to etiquette when posting at your favourite forum ‡   Grin Apr 2001
Opamps 1Designing With Opamps I - What they are, what they do, and how they do it May 2000
Opamps 2Designing With Opamps II - Audio applications, filters, crossovers, etc. May 2000
Opamps 3Designing With Opamps III - More Filters, Specifications, Comparators, etc. May 2006
dBFrequency, Amplitude and dB - An explanation of the terms, what they mean, and how they are applied Dec 2006
logicLogic - The general principles of basic logic.  Logic families, gates, flip flops and counters. Jan 2020
MixingMixing - Active Vs. Passive - The basic principles of mixing two or more signals, as used in simple applications through to multi-channel mixers.Oct 2010
PotsPotentiometers - what they are and how to use them in practical circuits. Jan 2003
PowerPower - An explanation of the derivation of PMPO in amplifiers.  Light reading, really Grin Jun 2000
ToolsTools - The basics of the mechanical aspects of your hobby ‡ Mar 2001
DividersVoltage Dividers & Attenuators - A short article describing how to design these essential circuits Dec 2002

Design GuidelinesUpdated
Active FiltersActive Filters - Active filter design guide ... topologies, component selection, slope (dB/octave), transient response, etc. Jan 2014
State-Variable FiltersActive Filters, State-Variable - The state-variable active filter is one of the most versatile designs known. Find out what they can do.Dec 2012
Gyrator Avtive FiltersActive Filters Using Gyrators - Some of the simplest and most complex filters used are based on gyrators. The range is huge, but good results can be obtained with simple designs.May 2014
DesignAmplifier Design - ESP's contribution to the everlasting debate Jun 2001
HEXFETsAmplifier Design With HEXFETs - Getting good performance from vertical MOSFETs is possible (Updated) Mar 2014
BalancedBalanced Driver (Part 1) - with Floating Output. An in depth discussion of the design process ‡ Apr 2002
Balanced 2Balanced Interfaces (Part 2) - Essential reading for anyone designing equipment using balanced interconnects ‡ Jan 2010
Balanced 3Balanced Interfaces (Part 3) - Inputs & Outputs (The things no-one tells you) Sep 2017
CurrentCurrent Sources, Sinks & Mirrors - A discussion on these much misunderstood circuits. Apr 2007
DC and TransformersDC Offset On AC Mains and Transformers - Many people have found that toroidal transformers growl at times. This explains why, & how to fix it.Mar 2008
Designing With JFETsDesigning circuits with JFETs (junction field-effect transistors) can be challenging - Most of the JFETs you can get have a wide parameter spread, making them difficult to work with.Apr 2021
HeatsinkHeatsinks - An article on heatsink selection, transistor mounting and thermal transfer principles Feb 2021
Heatsink+AmplifiersHow much heatsink do I need for my amplifier? How long is a piece of string? - A discussion on sizing the heatsink for your amplifierMay 2015
Instrumentation AmplifiersINAs (Instrumentation Amplifiers) vs Opamps. A look at some common INAs, how they work, and how to use them in your project. Comparisons between INAs and common opamp circuits are shown.Aug 2017
MOSFET RelayMOSFET Relays - Very different, but extremely useful for high power amps that will destroy any normal relay   Dec 2019
Negative ImpedanceNegative Impedance - What It Is, What It Does, And How It Can Be Useful May 2017
NoiseNoise in Audio Amplifiers - An explanation of noise figures, and how circuit noise is calculated Jan 2000
Pre-OpampOpamp Alternatives - A sample of the circuits that were in common use before opamps 'took over' Apr 2014
SupplyPower Supply Design - How to design linear power supplies - transformers, rectifiers and filters Dec 2007
SupplySinewave Oscillators/ Generators - An examination of different sinewave generation techniques. Apr 2010
MatchingTransistor Matching Tests - Matching Bipolar or MOSFET transistors for critical amplifier applications Dec 2001
VariableVariable Impedance Amplifiers - How you can control the output impedance of a power amp Apr 2000
VCAsVoltage controlled Amplifiers/ Attenuators - An investigation into VCA techniques, including JFETs, LED/LDR modules and 'true' VCAs Dec 2012

Power Supply DesignUpdated
SupplyBench Power Supplies - Buy Or Build?  One of the most challenging DIY builds is a good, reliable bench power supply (includes examples, but is not a construction article!) Nov 2019
SupplyBleeder Resistors, and using Active bleeders to discharge PSU capacitors when power is removed  Oct 2020
SupplyBucking Transformers - Here is a bit more info than you'll find elsewhere - how to do it properly May 2010
DC and TransformersDC Offset On AC Mains and Transformers - Many people have found that toroidal transformers growl at times. This explains why, & how to fix it.Mar 2008
E-FuseElectronic Fuses - A collection of useful ideas with example circuits.  These aren't always as hard as you might think Feb 2020
InrushInrush Current - What it is, what it can do, and how to prevent it from causing problems Oct 2010
Isolation TransformersIsolation Transformers - is an isolating transformer on the test bench a good safety measure or a death trap? Dec 2016
InvertersInverters - Squarewave, modified squarewave, modified sinewave, pure sinewave - What are the differences, and should you really care? Mar 2014
LDO RegulatorsLDO (Low Dropout) Voltage Regulators - A short primer on these sometimes difficult devices Mar 2017
Lithium ChargingLithium Charging - Lithium Cell Charging & Battery Management. Not as simple as it seems. Feb 2017
Mains QualityMains Power Quality - Does it matter if the mains is distorted, and is an expensive 'regenerator' or other system worth the price? Aug 2014
Mains SafetyMains Safety - Wiring Standards, Insulation, Class I, Class II and Important Information. Wiring of mains is poorly understood by many, and applicable standards vary worldwide.Mar 2019
SupplyPower Supply Design - How to design linear power supplies - transformers, rectifiers and filters Dec 2007
PreregulatorsPower Supply Pre-Regulator Techniques - A look at the various types of bench power supply pre-regulators Feb 2020
SupplyPower Supply Simulations - not quite as simple as they first appear. Sep 2019
SnubbersPower Supply Snubbers - Are They Necessary And Why Might I Need One? Jan 2019
SupplyPower Supply Wiring - There are a lot of considerations for the wiring of a PSU - read about it here Jun 2003
RecrifiersRectifiers. Half wave, full wave, bridge, voltage doublers & multipliers and multi-phase rectifiers explained. Feb 2018
Transformer 3Small Power Supplies (Part I).  Design of small PSUs - includes information that might save your life ! May 2008
Transformer 3Small Power Supplies (Part II).  Regulated Power Supplies, Transient Response & Noise April 2018
Soft StartSoft Start Circuits - a follow-on article to augment the 'Inrush Current' article listed above Dec 2017
SupplySwitchmode Power Supply Primer - A discussion covering the different types of SMPS, and how they work Oct 2015
Transformer 1Transformers, Part 1 - The basics of transformers, what they do, and how they do it May 2001
Transformer 2Transformers, Part 2 - The details of magnetic circuits, windings, core types and losses. Now includes current transformers Oct 2012
Transformer 3Transformers, Part 3 - Designing and analysing transformers - not at all for the faint-hearted, but all very useful information Jan 2006
Transformer 4Transformers, Part 4 - Further information on transformer usage, including captured waveforms and worked examples Jan 2006
RegulatorsVoltage & Current Regulators - The basics of both voltage and current regulators, and how (and where) to use them Jul 2013

Active Crossovers, Filters and Signal ProcessingUpdated
Active Vs. PassiveActive Vs. Passive Crossovers - An explanation for the profound audible differences Jan 2004
BaffleBaffle Step Compensation - What it is and why we need to compensate for it Dec 2001
DerivedDerived (Subtractive) Crossovers - An examination of these networks, and why they are unsuitable for serious use Sep 2005
DSPDigital Signal Processing (DSP) - What DSPs can (and cannot) do for your system Dec 2006
NTMNTM™ Crossovers - This is a topic that has virtually zero technical information on the Net ... until now. Sep 2005
PLLXOPassive Line Level Crossovers (PLLXO).  Useful Or Not? Apr 2020
PhasePhase Correction - Myth or Magic? - Do all-pass filters really work to correct loudspeaker phase anomalies? May 2007
PhaseUsing Phase Shift Networks To Achieve Time Delay For Time Alignment.   NEW Nov 2020

Passive Crossover Network DesignUpdated
6dB Serial6dB/ Octave Serial Crossover Networks - The simplest of all, but only for low to moderate power May 2020
SerialImpedance Compensation For Passive Crossovers - How to make any driver appear resistive to the crossover network May 2020
PassivePassive Crossovers - The Design of High Quality Passive Crossover Networks Nov 2001
SerialSerial vs. Parallel Crossover Networks - Are there any real differences? Aug 2003
SerialPassive Crossover Design Tables - Make your life a little easier with this handy guide to crossover design. May 2020
L-PadLoudspeaker L-Pad Calculations.  An online calculator and formulae for calculating the values for L-Pads. Aug 2018

Loudspeaker DesignUpdated
ComplianceCompliance Scaling - Fitting just about any driver to just about any alignment Jun 2005
Current DriveCurrent Drive - Current Drive Power Amplifiers & Effects on Loudspeaker Drivers. Apr 2019
DopplerDoppler Distortion in Loudspeakers - Is the effect real or imaginary when applied to loudspeakers?  The results may surprise you Aug 2004
DopplerEnclosure Design Guidelines - Some tips, tricks and techniques to help you design an optimum loudspeaker enclosure. Sep 2019
Guitar SpeakersGuitar Speakers - A detailed examination of the things that go towards 'the sound' of guitar speakers. Sep 2018
ImpedanceImpedance - Effects Of Source Impedance on Loudspeaker Drivers Jul 2001
TransformThe Linkwitz Transform Circuit - What it is, what it does and how it does it ‡ Sep 2002
Loudspeaker FailuresLoudspeaker Failure Modes - Why do loudspeakers fail? What can be done to prevent failures? Not what you expect! ‡ Jun 2012
Pwr vs. EffLoudspeaker Power vs. Efficiency - There's more to this than meets the eye Dec 2006
Speakers 1Loudspeakers (Part I) - see the production of my latest triamped speaker boxes unfold Jul 2001
Speakers 2Loudspeakers (Part II) - The electronics that drive the 3-way system are described Nov 2001
PhasePhase, Time and Distortion in Loudspeakers - Is 'Time Alignment' worth the effort? Jul 2002
PikkuPikku 9 - Simple Network Lowers f3 - A useful approach for obtaining better bass from a very small loudspeaker ‡ Jul 2006
Subs 1Satellites & Subwoofers - Description of the little known QB5 loudspeaker alignment.  Maximum SPL from 2-way bookshelf speakers. ‡Aug 2004
SSLSmall Satellite Loudspeaker - Using techniques described in various articles, this project should have wide appeal for home theatre ‡ May 2007
Subs 2Subwoofer Conundrum - Some tips and hints on subwoofer selection, efficiency and placement Mar 2004
TSPThiele Small Parameters - Determining the Thiele/Small parameters for a loudspeaker driver Jan 2006
Box StuffingVolume Filling a Reflex Box - It is generally thought that vented boxes should not be filled, but this isn't necessarily the case ‡Feb 2007
WaveguidesPractical DIY Waveguides - Waveguide definition, calculation and construction ‡ Dec 2006

Explanation of Symbols ...

NewThe article is new - that must come as a surprise GRIN  Less than 2 months old (typically).
REDDates in the update column indicate a new or updated (within three months) article. Usually accompanied by Update
GrinIndicates an article that may include humour - caution is advised
Contributed article (see copyright notice on article page)

Main IndexMain Index
Please refer to Copyright information in the individual articles. All articles are Copyright © 1998 - 2020 Rod Elliott, unless otherwise stated.  The material presented on the ESP website is not public domain.  All material is Copyright!
Although it goes without saying (but I will say it anyway ) the contributed articles and projects from all over the world have added considerably to the overall value and range of topics covered in these pages, and on behalf of all the readers of The Audio Pages, I thank you for you efforts. Writing a clear and descriptive technical article is not an easy task, but your perseverance is acknowledged, and I am grateful that you have taken the time to share your knowledge.

May the flow of input continue - for anyone who would like to contribute, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Upcoming Articles

At any given time, there are usually articles in production either by myself or contributors. It is no longer possible (or sensible) to leave hints as to what may or may not be coming, since it is so easy to get sidetracked by something new that comes along.  Feel free to offer suggestions, or offer your own contribution.

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